Nickel Cadmium battery

The Nickel Cadmium (NiCd) battery

The NiCd prefers fast charge to slow charge and pulse charge to DC charge. All other chemistries prefer a shallow discharge and moderate load currents. The NiCd is a strong and silent worker; hard labor poses no problem. In fact, the NiCd is the only battery type that performs well under rigorous working conditions. It does not like to be pampered by sitting in chargers for days and being used only occasionally for brief periods. A periodic full discharge is so important that, if omitted, large crystals will form on the cell plates (also referred to as memory) and the NiCd will gradually lose its performance.

Among rechargeable batteries, NiCd remains a popular choice for applications such as two-way radios, emergency medical equipment and power tools. Batteries with higher energy densities and less toxic metals are causing a diversion from NiCd to newer technologies.

 

Advantages and Limitations of NiCd Batteries

Advantages

Fast and simple charge — even after prolonged storage.

High number of charge/discharge cycles — if properly maintained, the NiCd provides over 1000 charge/discharge cycles.

Good load performance — the NiCd allows recharging at low temperatures.

Long shelf life – in any state-of-charge.

Simple storage and transportation — most airfreight companies accept the NiCd without special conditions.

Good low temperature performance.

Forgiving if abused — the NiCd is one of the most rugged rechargeable batteries.

Economically priced — the NiCd is the lowest cost battery in terms of cost per cycle.

Available in a wide range of sizes and performance options — most NiCd cells are cylindrical.

Limitations

Relatively low energy density — compared with newer systems.

Memory effect — the NiCd must periodically be exercised to prevent memory.

Environmentally unfriendly — the NiCd contains toxic metals. Some countries are limiting the use of the NiCd battery.

Has relatively high self-discharge — needs recharging after storage.

 
Source: The Battery University